Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention (APMBC)



Even though Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) was amended in 1996 to deal with landmines, it did not ban the “production” and “stockpiling” of landmines, and only placed tighter controls on their “use” and “transfer.” Thus, it could not be considered a comprehensive ban. Given that this partial prohibition did not essentially resolve the problem of landmines, a process was commenced for the creation of a treaty banning anti-personnel landmines via cooperation between NGOs and like-minded countries. The Treaty was produced through what became known as the “Ottawa Process,” which originated out of an international meeting convened by the Canadian government in October 1996.


The Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention (APMBC) was adopted on 18 September 1997 and opened for signature on 3 December 1997. It entered into force on 30 September 1999.
Japan signed it on 3 December 1997 and ratified it on 30 September 1998. 

States Parties

162 countries are states parties to the Convention (April 2017)


The APMBC completely bans the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel landmines. It also obligates states parties to destroy all stockpiles of landmines within four years and to clear all mined-areas within ten years of theTreaty ratification.  
Provisions are also stipulated to international cooperation and assistance for clearance and victim assistance.